By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough reports ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar experiences the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse positive factors of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological positive factors, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our knowing of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan family members of languages in old and areal point of view.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
45) a. , tewa-nuk ‘SS having seen’, qwa’a-nuk ‘SS having eaten’, ne-tewa-la’a ‘my mirror’, pem-tewa-pi ‘for them to see’ b. , tewi-qat ‘person who is going to speak, 3 S is gonna speak’, qwa’i-sh ‘food’, meqni-sh ‘killer’, i=maxi-vichu-qa ‘is wanting to give it to you’, maxi-ve-l ‘that which has been given’ There are some inconsistencies with -a augments; for instance, I occasionally recorded netewapi ‘for me to see’ instead of the expected netewapi. A second group includes suffixes that do not themselves accept stress but attract stress away from the prefix to the root, to the second syllable of the stressless root if one is present.
In word-final position following a stressed vowel, /w/ often has devoiced release. (28) [wIwã] wiw ‘both’ However, /w/ remains fully voiced word-finally after unstressed syllables, as in axwa’aw ‘at that place’. (29) /y/ a. ’, yeliyeli’ish ‘clean’, yixiqa ‘is pushing hard’, yuma’at ‘hat’ b. as coda: ayxat ‘old’, neyey ‘my mother (object case)’, pengiiy ‘3s went away’, peyuy ‘3 S ’s hair (object case)’ Like /ly/ and /w/, /y/ often exhibits devoiced release in word-final position following stressed vowels.
Iinyo from Spanish indio). Whether Faye’s transcription was motivated by knowledge of the Spanish source vocabulary or by the phonetics of the speakers of his time is uncertain but it must be noted that the use of Spanish by the speakers of Faye’s generation was much more active than later on. 3. S YLLABLE STRUCTURE . All syllables in Cupeño exhibit onsets. Syllable onsets always consist of a single consonant. There are no syllable-initial consonant clusters in native vocabulary (but cf. initial consonant clusters with the “foreign” sound r in loanwords such as traapu ‘cloth’, from Spanish trapo, and kriitu ‘streetcar’, possibly from English streetcar).
A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill