By Charles G. Gross
Neuroscientist Charles Gross has been attracted to the heritage of his box considering his days as an undergraduate. A gap within the Head is the second one number of essays during which he illuminates the examine of the mind with attention-grabbing episodes from the earlier. This volume’s stories variety from the historical past of trepanation (drilling a gap within the cranium) to neurosurgery as painted through Hieronymus Bosch to the invention that bats navigate utilizing echolocation.
The emphasis is on blind alleys and mistakes in addition to triumphs and discoveries, with historical practices hooked up to fresh advancements and controversies. Gross first reaches again into the beginnings of neuroscience, then takes up the interplay of paintings and neuroscience, exploring, between different issues, Rembrandt’s “Anatomy Lesson” work, and at last, examines discoveries by means of scientists whose paintings used to be scorned of their personal time yet confirmed right in later eras.
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Additional resources for A Hole in the Head: More Tales in the History of Neuroscience
17. Majno, 1975. 18. , 2008. 19. Guanzhong, 1991; the real Hua Tuo (ca. 200) had ‘‘enduring fame’’ as a surgeon for using some type of general anesthesia in surgery, for medical gymnastics (Frolics of the Five Animals), and for his skill as an acupuncturist (Lu and Needham, 1980). , the emperor su¤ered from migraine, mental disturbances, and dizziness, and Hua Tuo gave acupuncture at a point in the sole of the foot and he was immediately cured. Since Lu and Needham’s classic, Hua Tuo has become popular on Chinese medicine Internet sites, there are a number of remedies named after him, and there is even a translation of his supposed work Classic of the Central Viscera (Hua Tuo, 1993).
Aristotle’s Cardiocentric View The idea that the brain is central for sensation, movement, and mentation was a dominant tradition in Greek medicine from Alcmaeon through the Hippocratics and Alexandrians to Galen. However there was an opposing tradition in Greek philosophy, beginning with Aristotle, that held that the heart—not the brain—was the ‘‘command center’’ (hegemonikon) of the soul, the center of sensation, movement, and cognition. 5 In support of his cardiocentric view, Aristotle adduced several lines of evidence including (a) anatomical—the heart connects with all the sense organs but the brain does not (on dissection, blood vessels are indeed more prominent than nerves); the heart is centrally placed whereas the brain is peripherally located; (b) embryological—the heart develops before the brain; (c) comparative—all animals have a heart, but invertebrates, which do have sensation, have no brain; (d) observational—the heart, unlike the brain, is sensitive to touch; the heart but not the brain is a¤ected by emotions; and (e) physiological—the heart provides blood needed for sensation but the brain is bloodless, without sensation; the heart is warm like higher life but the brain is cold; the heart but not the brain is essential for life.
Tielman, 1996, 2002; Bowersock, 1969. 12. Nutton, 1984; Wilson, 1972; Sarton, 1959; Galen, 1978–1984. 13. Sarton, 1954. 14. Sarton, 1954; Wilson, 1972. 15. Sigerist, 1961; Guthrie, 1945; Walsh, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939. 16. Sarton, 1954; Wilson, 1972; Walsh, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939. Galen (1988), in a work relatively recently translated from Arabic, On the Examinations by which the Best Physicians Are Recognized, described the exam he took to get the position at the gladiator school in Pergamon: ‘‘A high priest followed this method (of choosing physicians) when I returned to our city from places which I had set out to visit.
A Hole in the Head: More Tales in the History of Neuroscience by Charles G. Gross