By F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster
In this research, an outline is gifted of agricultural guidelines on manure and minerals, in terms of the Nitrate Directive to treatment over the top floor- and groundwater illness from extensive agricultural practices. Six nations belonging to the ecu Union have been studied: the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the uk. The rules and their criminal incorporation have been regarding agricultural and environmental stipulations in each one kingdom. additionally, a listing was once made from agricultural mineral poli cies within the usa and Canada. stipulations for farm animals farming in North the United States fluctuate significantly from these in Europe, yet their ideas shed a unique gentle on ecu guidelines. learn has proven that there are nonetheless very substantial mineral surpluses in lots of international locations and areas. In either the Netherlands and within the Flemish a part of Belgium, present difficulties as a result of very excessive degrees of manure construction are structural instead of neighborhood and can't simply be solved via shipping of manure to different areas. To a lesser quantity. Germany, Denmark and comparatively small elements of France (Brittany) and the uk, nonetheless exceed the norms for an equilibrium fertilization. In Denmark, current difficulties can most likely be solved in the present legislative framework. The Netherlands, Flanders. numerous German Lander (Nordrhein-Westfalen and Schleswig-Holstein) and Brittany.
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During this examine, an outline is gifted of agricultural regulations on manure and minerals, with regards to the Nitrate Directive to therapy over the top floor- and groundwater illness from extensive agricultural practices. Six international locations belonging to the eu Union have been studied: the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the uk.
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Extra resources for Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures
For the first 2 years, levies will be low and will only apply to phosphate surpluses from manure, not from mineral fertilizer; the acceptable loss norm for nitrogen may be reduced by a correction factor for ammonia emissions that take place. In practice this will mean that levies will be very low between 1998 and 2000. • In order to reduce manure surpluses. the government will siphon off manure production rights; however. there has been a regional initiative to achieve an extra reduction of the minerals in manure through lower mineral content in feedstuffs.
8 Theoretical effect of measure A6 on the quality of surface water. 9 Theoretical effect of measure A6 on the quality of shallow groundwater. Source: de Cooman el al. N03l Figure 3. \0 Theoretical effect of measure J 6 on the quality of deep groundwater. Source: de Cooman al. , 1995 el 48 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS In February 1997, policy was decided for the next 10 years, with the stipulation that there will be an evaluation in two years (2000), after which adjustments can be made. The proposed measures have so far met with a lot of resistance from farmers' organizations.
It should be noted, however, that some of the manure produced in the Flemish provinces is transported to other regions, so not all of it is applied locally (see below). 3). The highest nitrogen balance has the province of Antwerpen (358 kg N/ha), followed by Westand Oost-V1aanderen (308, resp. 286 kg N/ha). The nitrogen balance for Wallonia is much lower, 119 kg N/ha for Liege, 136 kg N/ha for Hainaut (Schleef and Kleinhauss, 1995). 2 Utilization of mineral fertilizer in Belgium and Luxembourg Year 1970 1975 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 Utilization (lOOOt) 178 182 194 197 199 199 196 186 Phosphorus The total mineral production from livestock amounted to 32 million kg phosphorus, mostly originating from cattle and pigs.
Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures by F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster