Ancient Rome, from the earliest times down to 476 A. D by Robert F. Pennell PDF

By Robert F. Pennell

Robert Franklin Pennell (1850, Maine – 1905, San Francisco) was once an American educator and classicist.

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The great mass of the people were peasants, small landowners, of frugal habits and moral qualities. But comparatively few owned large estates as yet, or possessed large tracts of the Ager Publicus. A century later, when most of the available land in the peninsula was held by the wealthy and farmed by slaves, we find a great change. The fall of TARENTUM marks an important era in Roman history. Large treasures were obtained from this and other Greek cities in Southern Italy. Luxury became more fashionable; morals began to degenerate.

An army of 80,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry was raised and put under the command of the Consuls, LUCIUS ÆMILIUS PAULLUS and GAIUS TERENTIUS VARRO. It was decided to test Hannibal's strength once more in open battle. His army was only half as strong as the Roman in infantry, but was much superior in cavalry. In the early summer of 216 the Consuls concentrated their forces at CANNAE, a hamlet near the mouth of the Aufidus. Early one morning in June the Romans massed their troops on the left bank of the river, with their cavalry on either wing, the right under Paullus, and the left under Varro.

The Latin confederacy was at an end. Rome now was mistress. Four of the Latin cities, TIBUR, PRAENESTE, CORA, and LAURENTUM, were left independent, but all the rest of the towns were annexed to Rome. Their territory became 33 part of the Ager Románus, and the inhabitants Roman plebeians. Besides acquiring Latium, Rome also annexed, as municipia, three more towns, Fundi, Formiae, and Velítrae, a Volscian town. LATIUM was now made to include all the country from the Tiber to the Volturnus. Rome about this time established several MARITIME (Roman) COLONIES, which were similar to her MILITARY (Latin) COLONIES, except that the colonists retained all their rights as Roman citizens, whereas the military colonists relinquished these rights and became Latins.

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Ancient Rome, from the earliest times down to 476 A. D by Robert F. Pennell


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