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Additional info for Animals Grade 6 (Holt Science & Technology Modules 2005)
2. 13) 40 M. C. Downer For simplicity the case of two-photon absorption from a single beam has been assumed. The higher order terms contain extra energy denominators as well as interactions V and V' between levels of the intermediate configurations. Terms in which V and V' represent electric dipole operators describe three- and four-photon absorption processes, and are thus not relevant to our discussion of two-photon processes. Instead we are concerned with terms involving the non-radiative Hamiltonian, in particular the spin-orbit (Hso),crystal field (HcF), central field and interelectronic Coulomb potentials.
Broer, B. Gelding: Phys. Rev. B33, 7789 (1986) M. A. R. D. Fayer: J. LumirL 38, 9 (1987) R. van den Berg, S. Volker: J. Lumin. 38, 25 (1987) S. Alexander, R. Orbach: J. de Phys. K. Lye: Phys. Rev. Lett. S. C. Powell, Xu Gang: Phys. Rev. B33, 2713 (1986) U. Even, K. Rademann, J. Jotner, N. Manor, R. Reisfeld: Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2164 (1984) A. Blumen, J. Klafter, G. Zumofen: Optical Spectroscopy of Glasses, ed. by I. Zehokke (D. Reidel, Dordrecht 1986) p. M. Drake, P. K. Sinha, J. Klafter: Chem.
M. Yen because the inhomogeneous distribution in glasses comprises a large number of possible crystal field configurations given approximately by the ratio N(sites) = AVinh/AV h o m . 3) At the same time, the excitation volume can be made very small by using single mode fibers and by employing perpendicular excitation with tight focusing of the laser. A considerable fraction of the luminescence ensuing from such excitation is trapped in the fiber and detected at the end of the fiber. The experimental configuration and preliminary results of these studies are shown in Fig.
Animals Grade 6 (Holt Science & Technology Modules 2005) by Holt Rinehart & Winston