By F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D.L. Harrington
The method of gas injection, spray atomization and vaporization, cost cooling, mix training and the keep an eye on of in-cylinder air movement are all being actively researched and this paintings is reviewed intimately and analyzed. the hot applied sciences resembling high-pressure, common-rail, fuel injection structures and swirl-atomizing fuel gasoline injections are mentioned intimately, as those applied sciences, besides desktop regulate functions, have enabled the present new exam of an previous target; the direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC), gas engine. The earlier paintings on DISC engines that's correct to present GDI engine improvement can also be reviewed and mentioned.
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Additional resources for Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines
The complex and timedependent spray-airflow-interaction process will determine the rate of fuel-air mixing and the degree of mixture F. Zhao et al. /Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 25 (1999) 437-562 stratification. The mixture preparation process is strongly dependent on the spray geometry, the in-cylinder flow structure, and the fuel injection strategy . Han et al.  examined the effect of the mean flow components of swirl and tumble on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing process of a GDI engine using a modified version of the KIVA-3 code to simulate early fuel injection.
Some of the features of swirl, tumble and squish and their roles in GDI combustion system are summarized as follows. • Swirl: o yields less viscous dissipation and is preserved longer into the compression stroke; o good for maintaining stratification; o intensified when combined with squish; o engine speed dependent, thus yields a limited operation zone for adequate fuel-air mixing. • Tumble: o transformed into turbulence near TDC by tumble deformation and the associated velocity gradients; o only totally transformed into turbulence with a flat pancake chamber; o incomplete transformation into turbulence may lead to an elevated mean flow; o effective in creating high levels of near-wall flow velocities for promoting wall film evaporation; o effective in enhancing mixing by turbulence generation; o yields larger cycle-to-cycle variations than does swirl; o tends to decay into a large-scale secondary flow structure, making stratification more difficult.
With a flat combustion chamber, the intake-generated charge motion required, even beyond TDC, can be achieved quite effectively by a swirl port that introduces a swirling intake flow. With a pentroof-shaped combustion chamber, however, tumble flow is generally found to be more efficient. The tumble-flow concept is recommended for a four-valve engine having a valve angle that exceeds 40 °, whereas the swirl-flow concept is recommended for four- and three-valve engines having valve angles of less than 30 ° .
Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines by F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D.L. Harrington