By Philip Wilkinson
Full-color paintings, together with cutaway illustrations and exploded perspectives, explores a number of the world's most famed architectural landmarks, together with the Paris Opera, the Taj Mahal, and Grand valuable Station.
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Additional resources for Building
A ribbed vault has stone ribs that follow the lines of the groins and add strength. And the addition of decorative ribs in a fan-shaped pattern creates a fan vault. ROUND ROOF A dome is a kind of round vault. Some domes are made of stone or brick, others of a lightweight material covered with sheet metal. The metal gives a weatherproof surface that glitters and shines in the sun. It was often used on religious buildings, such as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Carved stone ornamentation Panel Shaft FANNING OUT FOREST OF RIBS Rib Supporting column Base Gothic masons of the Middle Ages built some of the finest vaults, with ribs thrusting upward to form pointed arches.
These are separated by plainer panels called triglyphs. The other two orders had more ornate capitals but plainer friezes. Roman and Renaissance architects imitated the Greek orders. They also added two of their own, the Tuscan and the Composite (see pp. 56-59). Fluted column Plain round column Base Doric Ionic 32 Corinthian Round Romanesque-style arch Pointed Gothic-style arch Coarse dog-tooth ornament carved with ax Fine nailhead decoration carved with chisel Abacus ENTER THE CHISELER When building work was begun again at Canterbury later in the 12th century, the pointed arch, typical of the Gothic style, was being introduced.
Other popular subjects were faces and coats of arms. Centering supports vault under construction solid arched roof was to build a vault. Vaults are usually made of stone or brick, making them much heavier than timber roofs. The earliest styles, such as the Roman barrel vaults, were inadequate for coping with the structural stresses caused by their weight – their walls tended to inch outward. But with the introduction of groins, and later ribs, builders found a way of supporting the weight and making the whole structure stronger.
Building by Philip Wilkinson