By Bruce A. Bimber
After a confident John F. Kennedy bested a visibly shaky Richard Nixon of their recognized 1960 debates, political tv, it was once stated, could henceforth be certain elections. this day, many declare the web often is the most modern medium to revolutionize electoral politics. applicants make investments seriously in internet and electronic mail campaigns to arrive potential electorate, in addition to to speak with newshounds, strength donors, and political activists. Do those efforts impact electorate, extend democracy, elevate the insurance of political concerns, or mobilize a shrinking and apathetic electorate?Campaigning on-line solutions those questions by means of how applicants current themselves on-line and the way citizens reply to their efforts-including no matter if citizens research from applicants' web pages and even if citizens' perspectives are plagued by what they see. even if the web won't bring about a revolution in democracy, it's going to, Bimber and Davis argue, have results: reinforcing messages, mobilizing activists, and strengthening partisans' perspectives. Reporting on a wealth of latest facts drawn from nationwide and state-wide surveys, laboratory experiments, interviews with crusade employees, and research of sites themselves, Campaigning on-line attracts the main entire photograph of the function of crusade web pages in American elections up to now.
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Extra info for Campaigning Online: The Internet in U.S. Elections
But if the state-level ﬁgures in Florida, as well as a few other key states, even roughly approximated the aggregate national ﬁgures, then Nader’s presence in the race did tip the election to Bush. Viable primary challenges to Bush and to Gore up until New Hampshire were also an important feature of the campaign season. Polls showed Democratic challenger Bill Bradley running roughly even with Vice President Gore throughout most of the fall of 1999, with a lead for a while in New Hampshire. The poll ﬁgures, combined with comparable levels of fundraising by Bradley, made his campaign a serious challenge to Gore, at least for a while.
73 And a last-minute Web site was created to support Jean Carnahan. Throughout this period, the Ashcroft campaign faced an unwelcome dilemma: How do you run a 33 34 campaign against a dead man? ”74 While Republicans initially may have concluded that Missouri voters would not elect a dead man, compassion for the late governor and the agreement of his widow to serve in his place offered Democrats new hope. S. senator from Missouri. The candidacy of Jean Carnahan offered a new wrinkle to the campaign as a historical novelty but also offered a new appeal to women voters.
We will examine candidate strategies and goals and how these were reﬂected in the content and functions built into their Web sites. The Internet is not simply plopped into an electoral campaign. 1 The strategies accom- 43 44 modate long-term factors, such as public expectations about the nature of the ofﬁce and the nature of the electoral system, and short-term factors, including ﬁnancial resources, their opponents’ efforts, and the shifting concerns of the voters. In general, a candidate’s strategy toward the singular goal of election can follow one of three paths: party oriented, issue oriented, or image oriented.
Campaigning Online: The Internet in U.S. Elections by Bruce A. Bimber