By Timothy R. Groves
Charged Particle Optics thought: An creation
identifies an important suggestions of charged particle optics thought, and derives each one mathematically from the 1st ideas of physics. Assuming a sophisticated undergraduate-level realizing of calculus, this e-book follows a logical development, with each one proposal development upon the previous one. starting with a non-mathematical survey of the optical nature of a charged particle beam, the text:
- Discusses either geometrical and wave optics, in addition to the correspondence among them
- Describes the two-body scattering challenge, that's necessary to the interplay of a quick charged particle with matter
- Introduces electron emission as a realistic final result of quantum mechanics
- Addresses the Fourier rework and the linear second-order differential equation
- Includes difficulties to enlarge and fill within the theoretical information, with ideas offered separately
Charged Particle Optics idea: An Introduction makes an awesome textbook in addition to a handy reference at the theoretical origins of the optics of charged particle beams. it really is meant to organize the reader to appreciate the massive physique of released examine during this mature box, with the result translated instantly to functional application.
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Extra resources for Charged Particle Optics Theory
The central problem in this formulation may be stated as follows: given the transverse position xa and slope xa at an arbitrary starting axial coordinate za , find the transverse position xb and slope xb at an arbitrary ending axial coordinate zb . 6. 6: General curvilinear axis. that the slope xb be finite. This excludes the case of a particle mirror, for which the slope is infinite where the ray turns around. 46 Chapter 2. Geometrical optics In fact, both the position and slope are considered small in the following.
80) Y (Pa , Pb ) = − Pa · xa + V (xa , Pb ). 81) δY = − xa · δPa + xb · δPb . 3. Conservation laws 41 The functions V, W, X, and Y represent a way to describe the optical coupling between the space (xa , Pa ) and the space (xb , Pb ) in an infinitesimal region surrounding a ray. Problem Show that the functions V, W, X, and Y all lead to the same Lagrange invariant. 2 Liouville’s theorem and brightness conservation The motion of a particle can be considered to trace out a trajectory in a six-dimensional space, for which the coordinates are labeled by the three position components of x and the three canonical momentum components of P.
Bombarding the film with a focused electron or ion beam renders the film either more soluble (positive-tone process) or less soluble (negative-tone process) in the developer. The organic film is thus patterned, and forms a binary mask for subsequent process steps. Creating fine patterns on a substrate is commonly referred to as lithography. An enormous variety of useful devices can be fabricated with high areal density and very small feature sizes. 10. The top pattern shows the negative-tone resist which is left behind after the development step.
Charged Particle Optics Theory by Timothy R. Groves